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Stainless steel by "N" research into a hot spot

Stainless steel by

Generally, the matrix of austenite , and 0.4% nitrogen , or a matrix structure of ferrite and the nitrogen content exceeding 0.08 % of the steel can be called nitrogen steel . At atmospheric pressure , the solubility of nitrogen in the steel is very low , it is difficult to join . Meanwhile , the high pressure melting technical difficulty, melting and casting equipment and is very complicated and expensive , thus limiting development of high nitrogen stainless steel . With the AOD refining technology for industrial applications , making the addition of nitrogen and control issues have been resolved to some extent , also contributed to the development of high nitrogen stainless steel . Meanwhile, with the shortage of resources have become increasingly prominent , high nitrogen stainless steel once again become a hot research .

Theoretical studies do support for technical progress
In recent years, foreign studies on austenitic stainless steel is more comprehensive, in-depth , high nitrogen austenitic steels theory and practice has also been a greater development. Domestic test equipment limitations due to high nitrogen austenitic steel research has lagged behind the international level. Therefore, at present in austenitic steels research mainly concentrated in Europe, Japan and South Korea and other countries. Foreign research mainly includes the following aspects:

Solution structure of nitrogen
Similar properties of nitrogen and carbon , is to generate a gap with the main elements of which is determined by its smaller size and the shell of atomic structure of the decision . In austenitic stainless steel, most of the nitrogen in solid solution in austenite in a solid solution in the ferrite small amount of nitrogen ( austenitic steel are present in a small amount of ferrite ) , ferrite - speculate nitrogen austenitic duplex stainless steel distribution coefficient from 0.23 to 0.25 . Nitrogen expansion of austenite and the austenite stabilizing effect of nickel is about 25 times . In the conventional 18-8 austenitic stainless steel have a small amount of ferrite exist , with the reduction of carbon content in steel , ferritic volume will increase, while nitrogen is added to reduce the carbon content to make up the organization to bring adversely affected. With the increase of the nitrogen content of the steel in the ferrite is reduced, while the increase in nitrogen content of ferrite gradually from the mesh , the short rod strip , the island -like change , thereby reducing the net ferrite for austenitic steels adverse impact strength and ductility .

Metal carbides , nitrides diffusion phenomena
Metal Science , information about the process of refining and solidification kinetics and thermodynamics problem has been studied systematically , but when Cr, Mn, N , and C and other elements co-exist in solid solution , the carbon nitride be a second phase precipitation great impact . When the nitrogen content exceeds the limits of the austenite solid solution will form a nitride precipitates , but priority precipitates not yet conclusive, generally considered to be Cr2N phase . Currently on carbon and nitrogen in austenitic dissolution and precipitation of less research work , it is necessary to explore, which according to the actual needs to control its solid solution with precipitation behavior .

Nitrogen alloying element in steel is mainly manifested in the interaction nitride diffusion phenomena . There are many in austenite steels nitride dispersion , mainly Cr2N. Containing Ti and Nb in steel , there is the formation of TiN and NbN . In AISI347 steel containing Nb , niobium combines with carbon or nitrogen with a Nb NbC NbN combined into austenite can improve their solubility , although NbC NbN smaller than the solubility . In the dual-phase steel , the nitrogen slow precipitation of intermetallic compounds and nitrogen diffusion strong austenite stabilizing effect on the relative proportion of stainless steel balance and improve the welding performance is very important. Nitrogen martensitic steels with other elements to form nitrides distributed in the grain boundaries , improve hardening ability to prevent tempering austenite and ferrite grain growth . In summary , nitrogen in stainless steel mainly through solid solution strengthening of nitrogen , a nitride dispersion strengthening and grain refinement of three ways to improve the performance of the steel .

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